What are Osteochondral Defects?
Traditionally, OCDs have been thought to occur as a result of repetitive trauma within the joint. However, more recent studies suggest the possibility of metabolic or genetic causes, which may alter the architecture or composition of the bone.
In OCDs of traumatic origin, such as in patients with a history of ankle instability and recurrent ankle sprains, both the cartilage and the bone are usually affected. These types of injuries may cause a shearing of the cartilage or a focal bone and cartilage injury with a saucer-shaped defect.
In those defects without a history of trauma, in which a De Novo bone injury occurs, the bone scaffold is lost and a cystic lesion forms within the bone, which, as it progresses, may cause the overlying cartilage to collapse into the defect.